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膜技术在水处理中的应用

文章来源:志恒环保   作者:志恒环保   发布时间:2018-04-21 13:34   浏览次数:

返回:技术支持

  MOSHIYIZHONGQIFENZIJIFENLIGUOLVZUOYONGDEJIEZHI,DANGRONGYEHUOHUNHEQITIYUMOJIECHUSHIZAIYALIXIA,HUODIANCHANGZUOYONGXIA,HUOWENCHAZUOYONGXIA,MOUXIEWUZHIKEYITOUGUOMO,ERLINGXIEWUZHIZEBEIXUANZEXINGDELANJIE,CONGERSHIRONGYEZHONGBUTONGZUFEN,HUOHUNHEQITIDEBUTONGZUFENBEIFENLI,ZHEIZHONGFENLISHIFENZIJIDEFENLI。MOJISHUZAISHUICHULIZHONGYINGYONGSHILIYONGSHUIRONGYE(YUANSHUI) ZHONGDESHUIFENZIJUYOUTOUGUOFENLIMODENENGLI,ERRONGZHIHUOQITAZAZHIBUNENGTOUGUOFENLIMO,ZAIWAILIZUOYONGXIADUISHUIRONGYE(YUANSHUI) JINXINGFENLI,HUODECHUNJINGDESHUI,CONGERDADAOTIGAOSHUIZHIDEMUDE。BENWENJIESHAOLEZHENGXIANGSHENTOUMO、FANSHENTOUMO、WEILVMO、CHAOLVMO、NALVMOJISHU、SHUANGJIMOJISHU、DIANSHENXIJISHUDEJIBENYUANLIJIQIZAISHUICHULIZHONGDEYINGYONG,BINGZHEZHONGJIESHAOSHUANGJIMODEYUANLIJIQIYINGYONG

  SUIZHEWOGUOGONGYEHUAHECHENGSHIHUADEFAZHAN,DALIANGDESHENGHUOHEGONGYEFEISHUIPAIRUSHUITI,ZHEIXIEFEISHUIZHONGDUOHANYOUBUTONGNONGDUDEHUAXUECHENGFEN,ZAOCHENGLEYANZHONGDESHUITIWURAN,WEIBAOHUHUANJING,SHIQIBUSHOUWURAN,BINGNENGHUISHOUYIXIEYOUYONGWUZHI,ZAIGONGYEHECHENGSHIFEISHUIPAIFANGZHIQIANBIXUJINXINGJINGHUACHULI。MOFENLIJISHUSHIYIZHONGXINXINGGAOXIAO、JINGMIFENLIJISHU,TASHICAILIAOKEXUEYUJIEZHIFENLIJISHUJIAOCHAJIEHEXINGCHENGDEYIMENJISHU,JUYOUGAOXIAOFENLI、SHEBEIJIANDAN、JIENENG、CHANGWENCAOZUO、WUWURANDENGYOUDIAN,GUANGFANYINGYONGYUGONGYELINGYUZHONGDUOXINGYE,JUTONGJI,QUANQIUMOXIAOSHOUEMEINIANYI14%~30%DESUDUZENGZHANG。MOFENLIZAIFEISHUICHULIZHONGYIDEDAOLEGUANGFANDEYINGYONG,BINGJIANGHUICHENGWEIZHUYAODEXIANJINFEISHUICHULIJISHU,YOUZHEGUANGKUODEFAZHANQIANJING。

  1 正向渗透膜技术

  1.1 ZHENGXIANGSHENTOU(FO)DEYUANLI

  YONGZHINENGTOUGUORONGJIERBUNENGTOUGUORONGZHIFENZIDEBANTOUMOJIANGRONGJIHERONGYEGEKAI,RONGJIFENZIJIANGZAISHENTOUYADEZUOYONGXIAZIFADICONGRONGJICETOUGUOMOJINRURONGYECE,ZHEIJIUSHISHENTOUXIANXIANG,YEJISUOWEIDE“ZHENGXIANGSHENTOU”。SHENTOUGUOCHENGDEQUDONGLISHIMOLIANGCEDESHENTOUYACHA,HUOLIJIEWEIMOLIANGCESHUIDEHUAXUESHIDECHAZHI,SHUILIUFANGXIANGWEICONGSHENTOUYADI(SHUIHUAXUESHIGAO)DEYICELIUXIANGSHENTOUYAGAO(SHUIHUAXUESHIDI)DEYICE。YOUZHENGXIANGSHENTOUDEYUANLIKEZHI,FOMODECHANSHUICEXUYAOBIJINSHUICEJUYOUGENGGAODESHENTOUYAYIBAOZHENGHUODEYIDINGDESHUITONGLIANG。ZAIFOMOCHANSHUICENENGTIGONGGAOSHENTOUYADERONGYESHIFOGONGYIDEGUANJIANSUOZAI,YIBANCHENGZHIWEI“TIQUYE”(Draw Solution,DS)[2]。JINLIAOZHONGDESHUITOUGUOMOJINRUTIQUYE,XISHIDETIQUYEXUYAOJINGGUOZAINONGSUOGONGYIYIHUIFUQISHENTOUYABINGJINXINGXUNHUANLIYONG,TONGSHIHUODEJIEJINGDECHANSHUI。ZHENGXIANGSHENTOUMOFENLIGONGYIDELIUCHENGJIANTU1。

1.png 

TU1 ZHENGXIANGSHENTOUFENLIGONGYITU

  1.2ZHENGXIANGSHENTOUMOZAISHUICHULIZHONGDEYINGYONG

  1.2.1HAISHUIDANHUA

  FOYONGYUHAISHUIDANHUASHIQIYANJIUZUIWEIGUANGFANDELINGYUZHIYI。ZAOQIDEYINGYONGYANJIUZHUYAOJIANYUYIXIEZHUANLIZHONG,DANZHEIXIEYANJIUDADOUBUCHENGSHU,KEXINGXINGBUGAO。

  McCutcheonDENG[3]YANJIULEYIZHONGXINXINGDEFOHAISHUIDANHUAGONGYI,CAIYONGYIRONGQITIANQIHECO2ZHICHENGTIQUYE,KEHUODEFEICHANGDADESHENTOUYA,QIEGAITIQUYEKEZAIJIAODIDEWENDU(60℃)XIAREJIEWEIANQIHECO2,BIANYUXUNHUANLIYONG。JINYIBUDEYANJIU[4]KAOCHALEBUTONGJINSHUINONGDUDETONGLIANGBIANHUA,DANGCAIYONG6 mol/LDETIQUYENONGDUCHULI0.5 mol/LDENaCIRONGYE(XIANGDANGYUYUANHAISHUINONGDU)SHIKEHUODE23.04 L/( m2·h)DESHUITONGLIANG,CHULI2 mol/LDENaClRONGYE(XIANGDANGYUSHUIHUISHOULVWEI75%SHIDEHAISHUIDANHUADENONGSHUI)SHIKEHUODE7.2 L/(m2·h)DESHUITONGLIANG,QIETUOYANLVJUNGAOYU96%。JINGUANSHIYANSUODEDETONGLIANGZHIYUANDIYULILUNJISUANZHI(YUEWEILILUNZHIDE2%~5%,ZHUYAOYOUYUNEIBUNONGCHAJIHUASUOZHI),DANCITONGLIANGYIXIANGDANGKEGUAN。YINER,FOGONGYIYONGYUHAISHUIDANHUAJUYOULIANGHAODEYINGYONGQIANJING,ZHUYAODEJISHUNANDIANZAIYUSHIYONGYUFOGONGYIDEMODEYANZHI,YIJINLIANGJIANXIAONONGCHAJIHUAYINGXIANG,TIGAOMOTONGLIANG;LINGYIFANGMIAN,GAORONGJIEDU、YINONGSUOFENLIDETIQUYEDEKAIFAYESHIGUANJIANDIANZHIYI。

  1.2.2 GONGYEFEISHUICHULI

  ZAOQIYOUYANJIUBAODAOLEFOMOYONGYUDINONGDUZHONGJINSHUFEISHUIDECHULI,DANYOUYUQICAIYONGDERO(FANSHENTOU)MOWURANYANZHONG,TONGLIANGXIAJIANGXUNSU,YINERWEIDEDAOSHENRUKAIZHAN。JINLAIYOUBAODAOCAIYONGFO/ROZUHEGONGYICHULIFANGZHIYINRANSHENGCHANFEISHUI,WUXUHUAXUEYAOJI,NONGSUOYEKEJINXINGFENSHAOHUOYANYANGXIAOHUACHANQI。GAIGONGYIHAIKEYONGYULIZIJIAOHUANZAISHENGFEISHUI、ZHIGEFEISHUI、MEICENGQISHENGCHANFEISHUIDENGGONGYEFEISHUIDECHULI,YOUQISHIHEYUYANHAIDIQU(KECAIYONGHAISHUIZUOWEITIQUYE)。

  1.2.3 LAJISHENLVYECHULI

  MEIGUOELEGANGZHOUKEWALISISHIDECoffin ButteLAJITIANMAICHANGMEINIANKECHANSHENG(2-4)×104 m3DELAJISHENLVYE,WEIDADAOTUDILIYONGDESHUIZHIBIAOZHUN,BIXUJIANGCHUSHUIDETDSJIANGDAO100 mg/LYIXIA。TONGGUOQIANQISHIYAN,JIANLILEYIF0GONGYIWEIZHUTIDELAJISHENLVYECHULICHANG,CAIYONG75 g/LDENaClRONGYEZUOWEIFODETIQUYE,YONGRODANYUANDUITIQUYEJINXINGNONGSUOHUIYONG。ZAI1998NIAN6YUE-1999NIAN3YUEDEYUNXINGQIJIAN,GAICHANGGONGCHULILAJISHENLVYE18 500 m3,PINGJUNSHUIHUISHOULVWEI91.9%,ROCHANSHUIPINGJUNDIANDAOLVWEI35μS/cm,DUIDADUOSHUWURANWUDEQUCHULV>99%,YUANGAOYUTUDILIYONGDESHUIZHIYAOQIU。

  2反渗透膜技术

  2.1 FANSHENTOU(RO)DEYUANLI

  FANSHENTOUSHIYIZHONGYIYALIWEITUIDONGLIDEMOFENLIGUOCHENGZAISHIYONGZHONGWEICHANSHENGFANSHENTOUYA XUYONGSHUIBENGJIHANYANSHUIRONGYEHUOFEISHUISHIJIAYALIYIKEFUZIRANSHENTOUYAJIMODEZULISHISHUITOUGUOFANSHENTOUMO,,JIANGSHUIZHONGRONGJIEYANHUOWURANZAZHIZUZHIZAIFANSHENTOUMODELINGYICE QIYUANLIXIANGJIANTU2

2.png 

TU2 FANSHENTOUYUANLI

  MOSHIFANSHENTOUXITONGDEXINZANG MODEHAOHUAIZHIJIEJUEDINGZHEFANSHENTOUXITONGDEXINGNENG CAIYONGBUTONGMOCAILIAOZHIBEIDEFANSHENTOUMOJUYOUBUTONGDEHUAXUEWENDINGXING REWENDINGXING JIXIEXINGNENGHEQINHEXINGNENGMUQIANCHANGYONGDEMOCAILIAOYOU[5]:1.XIANWEISUZHI、ERCUSUANXIANWEISUJISANCUSUANXIANWEISU:2.JUFANGXIANGXIANAN3.JUBENBINGMIZUO、JUBENBINGMIZUOTONG、JUXIANANXIANJINGHEJUXIANYAAN。

  2.2FANSHENTOUMOZAISHUICHULIZHONGDEYINGYONG

  2.2.1 FANSHENTOUMOZAISHUICHULIFANGMIANDECHANGGUIYINGYONG

  SHUISHIRENMENLAIYISHENGCUNHEJINXINGSHENGCHANHUODONGBIBUKESHAODEWUZHITIAOJIAN。YOUYUDANSHUIZIYUANRIYIQUEFA,SHIJIESHANGFANSHENTOUSHUICHULIZHUANGZHIDENENGLIYIDADAOMEITIANSHUBAIWANDUN。XIANZAICAIYONGFANSHENTOUMODANHUAHAISHUIZHIQUYINYONGSHUIYICHENGWEIZUIJINGJIDESHOUDUAN[6], MEIDUNSHUIHAODIANZAI5 kW•hYIXIA,ZUIDADEZHUANGZHICHULINENGLIDA2.0×105 m3/d,TONGYANGTAYESHIKUXIANSHUIDANHUAZUIJINGJIDEFANGFA,MEIDUNSHUIHAODIANZAI0.5~3kW•h, ZUIDADEZHUANGZHICHULINENGLIDA1.3×105 m3/d。2000NIAN,ZAIGUOJIAKEJIBUZHONGDIANKEJIGONGGUANXIANGMU“RICHANQIANDUNJIFANSHENTOUHAISHUIDANHUAXITONGJIGONGCHENGJISHUKAIFA” DEZHICHIXIA,1000 t/dJIDEFANSHENTOUHAISHUIDANHUASHIFANGONGCHENGXIANHOUZAISHANDONGZHANGDAOZHEJIANGSHENGSIJIANCHENG[7]。

  2.2.2 FANSHENTOUMOZAICHENGSHIWUSHUIFANGMIANDEYINGYONG

  MUQIAN,FANSHENTOUMOZAICHENGSHIWUSHUISHENDUCHULIFANGMIANDEYINGYONGYOUQISHIWUSHUICHULICHANGERJICHUSHUIHUIYONGJIZHONGSHUIHUIYONGDENG, YISHOUDAOGAODUZHONGSHI。MEIGUOCalifoinia OiangeXIANWF21GONGCHANGZUIZAOZAIFEISHUISHENDUCHULIZHONGSHIYONGLEFANSHENTOUMOJISHU。ZHONGDONGBUSHAOQUESHUIGUOJIAYECAIYONGFANSHENTOUMOJISHUCHULICHENGSHIWUSHUI,QIYIJIFANSHENTOUMOCHUSHUIHANYAN80mg/LERJICHUSHUIHANYAN10mg/LDADAOHUIYONGYAOQIU。 SUZUKIY[8]DENGJIANGBUTONGZUJIANXINGSHI、BUTONGCAIZHIDEFANSHENTOUMOYONGYUSHENGHUOWUSHUIHUIYONGCHULIYANJIU,JIEGUOBIAOMING:LUOXUANJUANSHIJUYIXICHUNFUHEMOHESANCUSUANXIANWEISUZHONGKONGXIANWEIMOZAIFEISHUIHUIYONGGONGYIZHONGJUYOUJIAOGAODESHIYONGJIAZHI:MOTOUGUOYESHUITONGLIANGJIAODA,SHUIZHIWUSETOUMING、WUWEI,FENBIANDACHANGJUNLEIDEJIELIULVWEI100%,SHENTOUYECODWEI1-2mg/L ,SEDU≤1DU,LINHANLIANGWEI0.01mg/L,JIBENYUCHENGSHIJISHUIXIANGCHABUDA。

  2.2.3 FANSHENTOUMOZAIZHONGJINSHUFEISHUICHULIFANGMIANDEYINGYONG

  HANZHONGJINSHULIZIFEISHUIDECHANGGUICHULIFANGFADOUZHISHIYIZHONGWURANZHUANYI, JIJIANGFEISHUIZHONGRONGJIEDEZHONGJINSHUZHUANHUACHENGCHENDIANHUOGENGJIAYIYUCHULIDEXINGSHI,QIZUIZHONGCHUZHICHANGCHANGSHIJINXINGTIANMAI,ERZHONGJINSHUDUIDIXIASHUIHEDIBIAOSHUIHUANJINGZAOCHENGERCIWURANDEWEIHAIYIRANZHANGQICUNZAI。GUONEIWAIJUNDUIFANSHENTOUFACHULIZHONGJINSHUFEISHUIJINXINGLEGUANGFANSHENRUDEYANJIU,FAXIANCAIYONGFANSHENTOUMOJISHUBUJINKEYIBIMIANCHANSHENGERCIWURAN,ERQIEHAINENGHUODEGAODEJINSHULIZIJIELIULV。

  MUQIAN, ZAIDIANDUGONGYEZHONGWOGUOYUEYOU100TAOFANSHENTOUZHUANGZHIYINGYONGYUCHULIHANNIEJIHANGEDIANDUYE,ZUJIANDUOCAIYONGNEIYAGUANSHIHUOJUANSHI 。GUOJIAHAIYANGJUHANGZHOUSHUICHULIJISHUZHONGXINCAIYONG3JINONGSUOJIDIYIJINALVNONGSUO10BEI,DIERJIFANSHENTOU(BWRO)NONGSUO5BEI,DISANJIFANSHENTOU(SWRO)NONGSUO2BEI,DUIDIANDUNIEPIAOXISHUIJINXINGCHULI,JIEGUOSHUIZHONGDENi2+YOU300mg/LNONGSUOZHI30mg/LLIULIANGYOU50t/hJIANZHI0.5t/hHOUJINRUFUYAZHENGFAXITONGDEDAONiSO4 •6H2OJINGTIHEQITADIANJIEZHIJINGTI,TOUGUOYEJINGLIZIJIAOHUANHOUNi2+ XIAOYU0.5mg/L,RANHOUTONGZILAISHUIHUNHEJINGCHULIHOUHUIYONGZUOPIAOXIPAOMONIEDECHUNSHUI[9]。

  2.2.4FANSHENTOUMOZAIHANYOUFEISHUIFANGMIANDEYINGYONG

  HANYOUFEISHUISHIYIZHONGLIANGDAMIANGUANGDEGONGYEFEISHUI,RUOZHIJIEPAIRUSHUITI,HUIZAISHUITIBIAOCENGCHANSHENGYOUMOZUAIYANGQIRONGRUSHUIZHONGCONGERZHISHISHUIZHONGQUEYANG、SHENGWUSIWANG、FACHUECHOU,YANZHONGWURANSHENGTAIHUANJING。YIBAN,HANYOUFEISHUIZHONGDEYOUFENYIFUSHANGYOU、FENSANYOU、RUHUAYOUSANZHONGZHUANGTAICUNZAI,QIZHONGQIANLIANGZHONGBIJIAOHAOCHULI,JINGJIXIEFENLI、NINGJUCHENDIANHEHUOXINGTANXIFU、YOUFENKEJIANGDIDAOJImg/LYIXIA,ERRUHUAYOUHANYOUBIAOMIANHUOXINGJIHEQITONGYANGZUOYONGDEYOUJIWU,YOUFENYIWEIMISHULIANGJIDAXIAODELIZICUNZAI,SUOYIZHANGQIBAOCHIWENDINGNANYIFENLI。

  DUIHANRUHUAYOUDEFEISHUIYINGYONGFANSHENTOUFACHULI,BUXUPOHUAIRUHUAYEJINXINGNONGSUOFENLI,QINONGSUOYECAIYONGFENSHAOCHULI,SHENTOUYEKEJINXINGHUIYONGHUOPAIFANGCHULIMEIGUOJIALIFUNIYADESHENGPAOSIFEIREDIANZHANDIYICIDAGUIMOYINGYONGFANSHENTOUZHUANGZHIYUYOUTIANCAICHUSHUICHULI,CHENGGONGDIJIANGHANYAN3000mg/L、 GUI6263mg/L、 YOU3.5mg/L、ZONGYOUJITAN(TOC)(16 ~23) mg/LDEYOUTIANCAICHUSHUICHULIDAOGUOLUYONGSHUISHUIZHIYUSHICHULIHOUDESHUIHUIYONGYUDIANZHANGUOLUJISHUI。

  3微滤和超滤膜技术

  3.1 CHAOLV(UF)HEWEILV(MF) DEJIBENYUANLI

  CHAOLVHEWEILVDOUSHIZAIJINGYACHADETUIDONGLIZUOYONGXIAJINXINGYEXIANGFENLIDEGUOCHENG,CONGYUANLISHANGSHUOBINGMEIYOUSHENMEBENZHISHANGDECHABIE,TONGWEISHAIKONGFENLIGUOCHENG。ZAIYIDINGYALIZUOYONGXIA,DANGHANYOUGAOFENZIDERONGZHIHEDIFENZIRONGZHIDEHUNHERONGYELIUGUOMOBIAOMIANSHI,RONGJIHEXIAOYUMOKONGDEDIFENZIRONGZHI(RUWUJIYAN)TOUGUOMO,CHENGWEISHENYEBEISOUJI;DAYUMOKONGDEGAOFENZIRONGZHI(RUYOUJIJIAOTI)ZEBEIMOJIELIUERZUOWEINONGSUOYEHUISHOU。NENGJIELIUFENZILIANG500YISHANG、106YIXIAFENZIDEMOFENLIGUOCHENGCHENGWEICHAOLV;ZHINENGJIELIUGENGDAFENZI(TONGCHANGBEICHENGWEIFENSANKELI)DEMOFENLIGUOCHENGCHENGWEIWEILV。

  NONGCHAJIHUAHEMOWURANDUIYIYACHAWEITUIDONGLIDEMOGUOCHENGDEFENLIXIAOGUOHEGUOCHENGKEKAOXINGYOUJIDADEYINGXIANG,YOUYIDUICHAOLVHEWEILVDEYINGXIANGZUIDA。

  NONGCHAJIHUASHIYOUYUMODEXUANZETOUGUOXING,BEIJIELIUZUFENZAIMOLIAOYECEBIAOMIANLEIJI,QINONGDUWANGWANGBILIAOYEZHUTIDENONGDUGAODEDUO,CISHI,MOSHENTOULIULVYUCAOZUOYALIWUGUAN,ZHUYAOQUJUEYUBIANJIECENGNEIDECHUANZHIQINGKUANG,JICHANSHENGLENONGCHAJIHUA。

  3.2CHAOLVHEWEILVMODEYINGYONG

  CHAOLV、WEILVJISHUKEYIYOUXIAOQUCHUKELIZHUANGWUZHI,BAOKUOWEISHENGWU,RUYINBAOCHONGZI、JIADICHONG、XIJUNHEBINGDU。HAIKETONGGUOYIDINGCHENGDUDIJIANGDIXIAODUFUCHANWUQIANTIWUDENONGDUHEXIANZHIXIAODUGUOCHENGZHONGYANGHUAJIXUQIULIANGLAIJIANSHAOXIAODUFUCHANWU。DANDUISHUIZHONGYOUJIWUDEQUCHULVHENDI,JINZAI20%YIXIA。CHAOLVHEWEILVDESHIYONGFANWEIBIJIAOGUANG,NENGGOUSHIYONGYUCHULIBUTONGDESHUIZHILIANG。

  4纳滤膜技术

  4.1 NALV(NF)YUANLI

  NALV(NF)SHIYIZHONGXINXINGFENZIJIMOFENLIJISHU,SHIMUQIANSHIJIEMOFENLILINGYUYANJIUDEREDIANZHIYI。NFMOKONGJINGZAI1nmYISHANG,YIBANZAI1-2nm;DUIRONGZHIDEJIELIUXINGNENGJIEYUROYUUFMOZHIJIAN;ROMOJIHUDUISUOYOUDERONGZHIDOUYOUHENGAODETUOCHULV,DANNFMOZHIDUITEDINGDERONGZHIJUYOUGAOTUOCHULV[10]。NFMONENGGOUQUCHUERJIA、SANJIALIZI,Mn≥200DEYOUJIWU,YIJIWEISHENGWU、JIAOTI、REYUAN、BINGDUDENG[11]。NALVMODEYIGEHENDATEZHENGSHIMOBENTIDAIYOUDIANHE,ZHEISHITAZAIHENDIYALIXIA(JIN0.5MPa)RENGJUYOUJIAOGAOTUOYANXINGNENGHEJIELIUFENZILIANGWEISHUBAIDEMOYEKETUOCHUWUJIYANDEZHONGYAOYUANYIN,YESHINFYUNXINGCHENGBENJIAODIDEZHUYAOYUANYIN。NFSHIHEGEZHONGHANYANSHUIYUAN,SHUILIYONGLVYIBANWEI75%~85%,HAISHUIDANHUASHIZAI30%~50%,MEIYOUSUANJIANFEISHUIPAIFANG[12]。

  4.2 NALVMOZAISHUICHULIZHONGDEYINGYONG

  4.2.1 NALVMOZAIYINYONGSHUIZHONGDEYINGYONG

  NALVCAOZUOYALIXIAO,SHIYINYONGSHUIZHIBEIHESHENDUJINGHUADESHOUXUANGONGYI。

  MUQIAN,DADUOSHUCHENGSHIDEJISHUISHUIYUANJUNSHOUDAOBUTONGCHENGDUDEWURAN,ERZILAISHUICHANGDECHANGGUICHULIGONGYIDUISHUIZHONGYOUJIWUQUCHULVBUGAO,DANGCAIYONGLVSHAJUNXIAODUSHI,LVYOUHUIYUSHUIZHONGDEYOUJIWUHUISHENGCHENGLUDAIFUCHANWU。PeltierDENG[13] 4NIANDEGENZONGYANJIUBIAOMING:CAIYONGNALVXITONGHOUSHUIZHONGDEDOCJIANGDIDAOPINGJUN0.7mg C/L,CHUSHUIYULVDEHANLIANGYOU0.35mg/LJIANGDAO0.1mg/L,ZUIZHONGWANGXIANZHONGSANLUJIAWAN(THMs)DEXINGCHENGBIWEICAIYONGNALVXITONGSHIJIANSHAOLE50%。LINGWAI,YOUYUSHENGWUJIANGJIEXINGRONGJIEYOUJITAN(BCOD)DEJIANSHAO,GAIJINLECHANSHUIDESHENGWUWENDINGXING。

  NALVJISHUNENGGOUQUCHUJUEDABUFENDECa、MgDENGLIZI,YINCITUOYAN(desalination)SHINALVJISHUYINGYONGZUIDUODELINGYU[14]。MOFASHUICHULIJISHUZAITOUZI、CAOZUOHEWEIXIUJIJIAGEDENGFANGMIANYUCHANGGUIDESHIHUIRUANHUAHELIZIJIAOHUANGUOCHENGXIANGJIN,DANJUYOUWUWUNI、BUXUZAISHENG、WANQUANCHUQUXUANFUWUHEYOUJIWU、CAOZUOJIANBIANHEZHANDISHENGDENGYOUDIAN,YINGYONGSHILIJIAODUO。NALVKEYIZHIJIEYONGYUDIXIASHUI、DIBIAOSHUIHEFEISHUIDERUANHUA,HAIKEYIZUOWEIFANSHENTOU(Reverse osmosis,RO)、TAIYANGNENGGUANGFUTUOYANZHUANGZHI(Photovoltaic powered desalination system)DENGDEYUCHULI[15]。

  4.2.2NALVMOZAIHAISHUIDANHUAZHONGDEYINGYONG

  HAISHUIDANHUASHIZHIJIANGHANYANLIANGWEI35000mg/LDEHAISHUIDANHUAZHI500mg/LYIXIADEYINYONGSHUI。LIYONGHAISHUIDANHUAJISHUCONGHAISHUIZHONGZHIQUYINYONGSHUIYICHENGWEIRENMENQUDEDANSHUIDEYIZHONGZHONGYAOSHOUDUAN。MUQIAN,SHIJIESHANGZHUANGJIYINGYONGDEHAISHUIDANHUAFANGFAZHUYAOYOUFANSHENTOU(RO)、DUOJISHANZHENG(MSF)、DUOXIAOZHENGFA(MED)HEYAQIZHENGLIU(VC)DENG,ZHUANGJIRONGLIANGYIMSFWEIZHU,DANJINNIANLAIROFAZHANXIANGDANGKUAI,SHICHANGFENERIJIANZENGDA。NFJISHUKEYIZUOWEIZHENGLIUFAHUOZHEROFAHAISHUIDANHUADEYUCHULIJISHU。Hilal[16]YANJIULENALVCAOZUOTIAOJIANHEBUTONGJIELIUFENZILIANGDENALVMODUIHAISHUIDEJIELIUXINGNENG,SHIYANBIAOMING:NALVNENGGOUJIANGDIBUFENHANYANLIANG,DANTOUGUOSHUITONGLIANGDEBIANHUAYUTUOYANLVCHENGFANBI。SHATEALABODESWCCGONGSICHENGGONGDIKAIFACHULENFJISHUZUOWEIHAISHUIDANHUADEYUCHULIJISHU[17]。SHIYANBIAOMINGNFMOKEYITUOCHUYINGDUHEZONGRONGJIEGUTI,CONGERTIGAOHAISHUIFANSHENTOUDECAOZUOYALIHEXITONGDEHUISHOULV,BAOZHENGROZUJIANYUNXINGDEANQUAN、WENDING,GONGYIJIANTU3。SHIYANZHONGNFDUANDESHUIHUISHOULVSHI80%;RODUANDESHUIHUISHOULVSHI62.5%。

 

3.png 

TU3 NF-ROLIANHEJISHUDEDAODELIANGZHONGBUTONGDENONGYANSHUI

  4.2.3NALVMOZAIFEISHUICHULIZHONGDEYINGYONG

  4.2.3.1SHENGHUOWUSHUI

  SHENGHUOWUSHUIYIBANYONGSHENGWUJIANGJIE/HUAXUEYANGHUAFAJIEHECHULI,DANYANGHUAJIDEYONGLIANGTAIDA,CANLIUWUDUO[18]。XUEGANGDENG[19]CAIYONGWEIXUNINGXIANWEIQIUGUOLV.CHAOLV.NALVZUHEGONGYIDUIBINGUANXIYUFEISHUIJINXINGLEXIAOSHISHIYAN。CHAOLVCHUSHUISHUIZHIKEDADAOHUIYONGZHIBINGUANCESUOCHONGXI、LVHUADENGHUANJIEDEYONGSHUIYAOQIU,NALVCHUSHUISHUIZHIKEDADAOSHENGHUOYINYONGSHUIWEISHENGBIAOZHUN(GB5749.85),KEYIHUIYONGZHIBINGUANXIYI、XIYUDENGYONGSHUIYAOQIUGENGGAODEHUANJIE。

  4.2.3.2 FANGZHI、YINRANFEISHUI

  FANGZHIFEISHUIZHONGHANYOUDERANLIAOHENNANYONGSHENGWUDEFANGFAQUCHU,Hassani[20]YANJIULESUANXING、HUOXING、ZHIJIEHEFENSANRANLIAOSHUIRONGYEDENONGDU、YALI、ZONGRONGJIEXINGGUTIHEWUJIYANHANLIANGDENGDUINALVMOJIELIUXINGNENGDEYINGXIANG。YANJIUBIAOMING:RANLIAODEJIELIUXINGNENGHESHIYANTIAOJIANXIANGGUAN,DANYURANLIAODEZHONGLEIWUGUAN;SHUITOUGUOLIANGSUISHIJIANDEYANZHANGYOUYIDINGDESHUAIJIAN;DANGRANLIAORONGYEZHONGJIARUNaClSHI,RANLIAODEJIELIULVDADAO100%。SahinkayaDENG[21]QUEDINGLEMIANFANGCHANGFEISHUIDESHENGHUAFA-NALVLIANHEGONGYI,NALVNENGGOUWANQUANQUCHUSEDU,CODDEQUCHUWEI80%~100%,TUOYANLVYUE65%,CHANSHUIDADAOHUIYONGBIAOZHUN。FersiDENG[22]DEYANJIUGONGZUOBIAOMING:UF/NFJICHENGMOJISHUBIDANDUCAIYONGNFJISHUDECHULIXIAOLVGENGGAO,JIANRONGBI(VRF)CONG1.35TIGAODAO2.77,Gozalvez-Zafrilla[23]DEYANJIUGONGZUOYEZHENGSHILEUF/NFJICHENGMOJISHUYONGYUFANGZHIFEISHUIHUIYONGDEKEXINGXING。

  4.2.3.3 ZHIGEFEISHUI

  ZHIGEFEISHUIHANYOUGAONONGDUDEYOUJIWU、LIUSUANYANHELVHUAWU,SUANXIGONGXUDEFEIYEDIANDAOZHIDADAO75 mS/cm。Bes-Pia[24]CAIYONGNFJISHUHUISHOULEZHIGEFEISHUI,SUODEDAODEGAONONGDULIUSUANYANNONGSHUIHUIDAOSUANXIDUAN,ERLVHUAWUDECHANSHUIDAHUILIEHUAFANYINGGU,JIANDANCAOZUOLIUCHENGRUTU4。

 4.png

TU4SHIYANSUANXIFEISHUIGUANLIGONGYILIUCHENG

  4.2.3.4 DIANDUFEISHUI

  DIANDUGONGCHANGWANGWANGCHANSHENGDALIANGFEIYE,JINGUANCAIQUSUANHUA、HUAXUEWUHAIHUA、CHENJIANGHEFENLIWUNIDENGFUZACHULIBUZHOU,CHANSHUIHANYANLIANGGAO,BUNENGZHONGXINHUIYONG。

  DEGUOSalzgitter FlachstahlGANGTIECHANGCAIYONGUF—NFLIANHEJISHUHUISHOUDUXINSHENGCHANXIANDEQINGXIFEISHUI[25]。GAITAOZHUANGZHIYU2005NIANTOURUYUNXING,NONGSHUIZHONGZnNONGDUDADAO20g/L,HUISHOUHOUYONGYUDUMOGONGXU,SUANXINGCHANSHUIBEIZHIJIEYONGYUQINGXIGONGXU,JINYONG13GEYUEJIUSHOUHUILETOUZICHENGBEN。

  LIUJIUQINGDENG[26]YIFEISHUICHULIHEJINSHUHUIYONGWEIMUDE,YANJIULELUOHEYICHAOLVYIJIELUOYINALVOUHEGUOCHENGCHULITONGDIANDUGONGYEFEISHUI。SHIYANLIYONGJUBINGXISUANNA(PAAN)WEILUOHEJI,TAOLUNLEpH、TIJINONGSUOYINZIDENGDUICHAOLVGUOCHENGDEYINGXIANG,YIJIJIELUO、NALVGUOCHENGHELUOHEJIZAISHENGHUIYONGXINGNENG。SHIYANYANJIUBIAOMING,ZAILUOHEGUOCHENGDUICu2+KEDADAO98%DEQUCHU,ZAIJIELUOGUOCHENGDUICu2+DEHUISHOULVRENGKEDADAO96%YISHANG。JINGGUONALVNONGSUODETONGDIANDUFEISHUI,KEHUISHOUTONGJINSHU,ERLVGUOYEKEDADAOHUIYONGSHUIDEBIAOZHUN。

  4.2.3.4ZAOZHIFEISHUI

  ZAIZHIJIANGHEZAOZHIYEZHONG,YUNJIANG、PIAOBAIHEZAOZHIDENGGONGXUDOUXUYAODALIANGDESHUI。SHIXIANSHUIXITONGDE(BAN)MIBIXUNHUANSHIZHIJIANGCHANG、ZAOZHICHANGJIEYUESHUIZIYUANJIANGDIPAIFANGLIANGDEZUIJIATUJING。CHUANTONGHUOXINGWUNIFADECHANSHUIZHONGHAIHANYOUBUFENYOUSEHUAHEWU、WEISHENGWU、KANGTIHESHAOLIANGDESHENGWUFENJIEWU,XUANFUGUTIDENG,JINNENGBEIYONGYUZHIZAOBAOZHUANGZHI,BUNENGYONGYUGENGGAOJIBIEZHIDESHENGCHAN。LINGWAI,GAIFABUNENGJIANSHAOWUJIYANDEHANLIANG。Koyuncu[27]DUIBILESHUI→NALVYIJIZAOZHIFEISHUI→HUOXINGWUNI→NALVLIANGZHONGCHULIGONGYIDESHIYONGXING,SHIYANBIAOMING:LIANGZHONGFANGFADECHUSHUIZHILIANGXIANGSI,DIERZHONGFANGFADECHANSHUITONGLIANGGENGHAO,CHUSHUIKEYIYONGYUGAOJIBIEZHI。DANNALVCHANSHUIRENGRANHANYOUYIDINGLIANGDEYIJIAYAN,XUYAOZAIZENGJIADIYAFANSHENTOUZHUANGZHITUOCHUYANLEICAINENGBAOZHENGXUNHUANSHUIDEZHILIANG。

  5 渗析和电渗析

  5.1 SHENXI

  SHENXI(Dialysis,JIANCHENGD)SHIRONGZHIZAIZISHENDENONGDUTIDUZUOYONGXIA,CONGMODESHANGYOUCHUANXIANGMODEXIAYOUDEGUOCHENG。

  SHENXISHIZUIZAOBEIFAXIANBINGYANJIUDEMOFENLIJISHU,DANYINWEISHOUDAOBENSHENTIXIDEXIANZHI,SHENXIGUOCHENGJINXINGHUANMAN,XIAOLVDIXIA,SHENXIGUOCHENGDEXUANZEXINGBUGAO,YINCISHENXIGUOCHENGZHUYAOYONGYUTUOCHUHANYOUDUOZHONGRONGZHIRONGYEZHONGDEDIFENZILIANGZUFEN[28],RUXUEYESHENXI,JIYISHENXIMODAITISHENLAIQUCHUNIAOSU、JISUANGAN、LINSUANYANHENIAOSUANDENGYOUDUDEDIFENZILIANGZUFEN,YIHUANJIESHENSHUAIJIEHENIAODUZHENGHUANZHEDEBINGQING。

  5.2DIANSHENXI

  DIANSHENXI(Electro dialysis,JIANCHENGED)SHIZAIZHILIUDIANCHANGDEZUOYONGXIA,YIDIANWEICHAWEITUIDONGLI,LIYONGLIZIJIAOHUANMODUIRONGYEZHONGDEYINYANGLIZIDEXUANZEXING,BADIANJIEZHICONGRONGYEZHONGFENLICHULAI,CONGERSHIXIANRONGYEDENONGSUO、DANHUA、JINGZHIHETICHUN。

  ZAI1950NIANJuda[29]KAIFALEXUANZEXINGLIZIJIAOHUANMOZHIHOU,DIANSHENXIJISHUCAIJINRUSHIYONGJIEDUAN。MUQIANDIANSHENXIYIJINGCHENGWEIMOFENLIJISHUDEZHONGYAOZUCHENGBUFEN,ZHUYAOYONGYUDANHUAKUXIANSHUI、ZHIBEIGONGYEYONGSHUIHEYINYONGSHUI。MEIGUONEIWUBUYANSHUIJU(OSW)ZAISHANGGESHIJIDEQISHINIANDAIJIANLILEDA1.89m3×106m3JIDEDAXINGDIANSHENXIHAISHUIDANHUASHIYANCHANG,HAISHUIHANYANLIANGYUE35g/l,KEYONGDIANSHENXIDANHUADAO300rng/l~500mg/l。ZAIZHONGDONGHEFEIZHOUQUEDANSHUIDEDIQU,LIYONGDIANSHENXIFANGFADANHUAKUXIANSHUIDEGONGCHANGZONGCHANSHUILIANGYIJINGCHAOGUOLE30WANDUN/RI,CHUSHUIDEHANYANLIANGYEZHIYOU3g/l~6g/l。

  6 双极膜技术

  6.1 SHUANGJIMOJIESHAO

  SHUANGJIMO(BPM)SHIYIZHONGXINMO,TONGCHANGSHIYOUYINLIZIJIAOHUANCENG、YANGLIZIJIAOHUANCENGFUHEERCHENGDEYIZHONGFUHEXINGLIZIJIAOHUANMO,YEKEYIZAIYINMO、YANGMOZHIJIANJIARUDISANCENGWUZHICUJINSHUIDEJIELI,CHENGWEIYINLIZIJIAOHUANCENG、YANGLIZIJIAOHUANCENG、ZHONGJIANFANYINGCENGGOUCHENGDESANCENGJIEGOU。ZAIZHILIUDIANCHANGDEZUOYONGXIA,SHUANGJIMOKEYIJIANGSHUIJIELI[30-31],ZAIYANGMO、YINMOLIANGCEFENBIECHANSHENGH+HEOH-。JUYOUBUTONGDIANHEMIDU、BUTONGJIEGOUDEMOCAILIAOZAIBUTONGDEFUHETIAOJIANXIAKEYIZHICHENGYIXIEJUYOUDUTEGONGNENGDESHUANGJIMO。MUQIANGUOWAIDUISHUANGJIMODEYANJIUYIJIAODUO,YIBANRENWEI,SHUANGJIMOZHUYAOJUYOUSHUIJIELIDIANSHENXIXINGNENGHESHUANGJIMONALVXINGNENG。SHUANGJIMODEXUANZETOUGUOXING、HUAXUEWENDINGXINGYIJIYOUGUANWUZHIDUIQIKUOSANQIANYINENGLIDUISHUANGJIMODEYINGYONGYOUHENDAYINGXIANG,ZHIBEIXINGNENGYOULIANGDESHUANGJIMOSHIQIYANJIUYUFAZHANDEGUANJIAN。

  20SHIJI80NIANDAIZHIQIAN,SHUANGJIMO[32-33]JINYOULIANGPIANYIN、YANGLIZIMOZHIJIEYAZHIERCHENG,XINGNENGCHA,YANJIUZHUYAOCHUYUSHIYANSHIJIEDUAN;80NIANDAICHUZHI90NIANDAICHU,CHUXIANLEDANPIANXINGSHUANGJIMO,ZHIBEIJISHUYOULEXINDEJINZHAN,XINGNENGDAWEITIGAO,ZAISHENGCHANSUANJIAN、YANQITUOLIUDENGFANGMIANYOULEGONGYEYINGYONG;90 NIANDAIZHIJIN,DUISHUANGJIMODEYANJIUJINYIBUSHENRU,CONGMOJIEGOU、CAILIAO、ZHIBEIGUOCHENGDENGFANGMIANJINXINGLEZHONGDAGAIJIN,YINMOYANGMOJIANCHUXIANLE“CUIHUACENG”FUZAJIEGOU,ZHIBEILESANMINGZHIXINGSHUANGJIMO[34]。WULVBIDINGDUIHUANJINGJUYOUYANZHONGDEWEIHAI,ER2,3,5,6-SILVBIDING(2,3,5,6-TCP)SHIYIZHONGYOUJIAZHIDESHANGYEHUACHANPIN, SHIZHONGYAODEYIYAOHENONGYAOZHONGJIANTI。LIYONGSHUANGJIMOJISHUDIANHAIYUANTUOLV[35]KEYIBIANFEIWEIBAO,JIANSHAOHUANJINGWURAN,SHIXIANRENYUZIRANKECHIXUFAZHAN。SHUANGJIMODEYINGYONGCONGHUAGONGXINGYEKUOZHANDAOSHENGMINGKEXUE、HUANJINGKEXUE、NENGYUANDENGZHUDUOLINGYU。

  6.2 SHUANGJIMODEYINGYONG

  6.2.1 HANFUFEIYEDECHULIJIYOUJIAFUDEHUISHOU

  ZAIFUTANGONGYEJIYOUGONGYE(UF6)DESHENGCHANZHONG,PAIFANGDEFEIQIFEISHUIZHONGHANYOUDEFUHEYOUJISUANDEZHILIANGFENSHUSHI50~500×10-6,TONGCHANGXUYAOYONGKOHZHONGHECAINENGWANQUANCHUQU,JIEGUOSHENGCHENGDEKFRONGYEHANYOUXUDUOZHONGJINSHU(RUYOU、SHENDENG)HEWEILIANGFANGSHEXINGWUZHI,HAIXUYONGCa(OH)2YUKFFANYINGZAISHENGKOHBINGSHENGCHENGBURONGXINGDEFEILIAO。ZHEIZHONGFANGFADAOZHIYOUJIAFUDESUNSHI,QIEJIYONGHULIUXIARUHECHULIHANFANGSHEXINGWUZHIDECa(OH)2FEILIAOWENTI,RUGUOCAIYONGSHUANGJIMODIANSHENLIJIEJISHUKEZHIJIEJIANGKFZHUANHUAWEIHFHEKOH,BUJINNENGHUISHOUGAOJIAZHIDEFU,QIEKEBIMIANSHIHUIDESHIYONG,BINGJIANSHAOFEIZHADECHULILIANG。

  6.2.2 SHUANGJIMOYONGYUSUAN、JIANFEIYEDEJINGHUAHEHUISHOU

  GONGYESHENGCHANHUICHANSHENGHENDUOSUANJIANFEIYE,RULIZIJIAOHUANSHUZHIZAISHENGFEIYE、SUANXIFEIYE、QIANXUDIANCHIFEIYE、ZAOZHICHANGFEIYEDENG。WEIJIANQINGDUIHUANJINGDEWURAN,ZHEIXIEFEIYEBIXUJINGGUOBIYAODECHULICAINENGPAIFANG,DANCHULIGONGYIFUZA,ZIJINHAOFEIDA。SHUANGJIMODIANSHENXIGONGYIWEIZHEILEIFEIYEDECHULITIGONGLEYIZHONGHENHAODEJIEJUEBANFA。1986NIANWOGUOZAIZHEJIANGSHENGYOUDIANYINSHUACHANGANZHUANGLEYITAODIANSHENXIHELIZIJIAOHUANLIANHESHEBEI,YONGYUCHULIHANTONGFEISHUI,JINGCHULIHOUDEFEISHUIHANTONGLIANGWEI100 mg/L,pHZHIWEI6~7,DADAOYUNXUPAIFANGDEBIAOZHUN。DIANSHENXIFAHAISHIYONGYUZAOZHIGONGYEDEFEISHUICHULI。CHENZHANGCHUNLIYONGSHUANGJIMOHELIZIJIAOHUANMOZUHECONGZAOZHIHEIYEZHONGHUISHOUJIAN,GAIFAHUISHOUCHUNJIANDIANHAOBILVJIANSHENGCHANSHAOJIANHEHEIYERANSHAOHUISHOUJIANDOUDI,KEWENDINGZAI3 000 kW/h。DANGHUISHOUZHONGDIANHEIYEpHZHIWEI7SHI,Na+HUISHOULVWEI50%,YANGJIHEIYEHANNa+ZHILIANGNONGDUWEI5 000~7 000 mg/L,KEZHIJIEHUIYONGYUGONGDUAN。YIYAOFEISHUIZHONGCHANGHANYOUDALIANGDEYOUJIWUJIXUDUOYOUJIAZHIDEWUZHI,RUANJISUANDENG,LIUYUEJINDENGREN[36]CAIYONGDIANSHENXIFACHENGGONGCHULILEZHIYAOCHANGSUANXINGANJISUANDEFEISHUI,JIJINGHUALEFEISHUI,YOUHUISHOULEANJISUAN。GAIJISHUSHIXIANJINDEHUANJINGZHILIJISHU,ZAISUANJIANFEIYEDEZHILIFANGMIANSHIQITAMOJISHUBUNENGQUDAIDE,SHISHIXIANWOGUODEJINSHUJIAGONGGONGYE、YEJINGONGYE、XITUGONGYE、WEIFENZHIZAOYEDENGKECHIXUFAZHANDEYOULIDEJISHUBAOZHANG。

 5.png

TU5 SANSHISHI

  TU5WEILIANGZHANGDANMOHELIANGZHANGSHUANGJIMOJIAOTIFANGZHIGOUCHENGDESANSHIJIEGOU[37]。FEISUANLIAOYECONGZHONGJIANSHITONGGUO,YINLIZIKETONGGUOYINMOXIANGZUOSHIKUOSAN。YUSHUANGJIMOCHANSHENGDEH+XINGCHENGSUAN,YUSHILIAOYEZHONGSUANDENONGDUJIANGDI,QIZHONGDESUANYIJIAOCHUNDEXINGSHIDEYIHUISHOU。XIANRANGAIGUOCHENGBIKUOSANSHENXILAIDEKUAI,HUISHOUSUANDENONGDUGAO(YOUYUYOUDIANCHANGLIDEZUOYONG)。LINGWAIZAISHUANGJIMODELINGYICECHANSHENGDEOH-(JUEDABUFENYUFEIYEZHONGDESUANJINXINGZHONGHE)YUFEIYEZHONGDEYANGLIZISHENGCHENGJIAN。

  6.2.3 SHENGHUOWUSHUICHULI

  SHENGHUOWUSHUIYIBANYONGSHENGWUJIANGJIE/HUAXUEYANGHUAFAJIEHECHULI[38-39],DANYANGHUAJIDEYONGLIANGTAIDA,CANLIUWUDUO。RUOZAITAMENZHIJIANJIASHANGNALVHUANJIE,SHINENGBEIWEISHENGWUJIANGJIEDEXIAOFENZI(XIANGDUIFENZIZHILIANG<100)TOUGUO,ERJIELIUZHUBUNENGBEIWEISHENGWUJIANGJIEDEDAFENZI(XIANGDUIFENZIZHILIANG>100)。DAFENZIWUZHIJINGHUAXUEYANGHUAQICHULIHOUZAIJINXINGSHENGWUJIANGJIE,ZHEIYANGJIUKECHONGFENLIYONGSHENGWUJIANGJIEXING,JIEYUEYANGHUAJIHEHUOXINGTANYONGLIANG,JIANGDIZUIZHONGCANLIUWUHANLIANG。

  6.2.4 YINYONGSHUIJINGHUA

  SUIZHESHUIWURANJIAJU,RENMENDUIYINYONGSHUISHUIZHIYUELAIYUEGUANXIN。SHIYANZHENGMING[39],SHUANGJIMONALVFAKEYIQUCHUXIAODUGUOCHENGZHONGCHANSHENGDEWEIDUFUCHANWU、HENLIANGDECHUCAOJI、SHACHONGJI、ZHONGJINSHU、TIANRANYOUJIWUJIYINGDU、LIUSUANYANJIXIAOSUANYANDENG。TONGSHIJUYOUCHULISHUIZHIHAOQIEWENDING、HUAXUEYAOJIYONGLIANGSHAO、ZHANDISHAO、JIENENG、YIYUGUANLIHEWEIHUDEYOUDIAN。

  6.2.5 HANZHONGJINSHUFEISHUIDECHULI[39]

  ZAIDIANDUJIAGONGHEHEJINSHENGCHANZHONG,JINGCHANGXUYONGDALIANGSHUICHONGXI,ZHEIXIEQINGXISHUIHANYOUNONGDUXIANGDANGGAODEZHONGJINSHU,YOUNIE、TIE、TONGHEXINDENG。WEILESHIZHEIXIEHANZHONGJINSHUDEFEISHUIFUHEPAIFANGYAOQIU,YIBANDECUOSHISHIJIANGZHEIXIEZHONGJINSHUCHULICHENGQINGYANGHUAWUCHENDIANCHUQU。RUGUOCAIYONGNALVMOJISHU,BUJINKEYIHUISHOU90%YISHANGDEFEISHUI,SHIZHICHUNHUA,TONGSHISHIZHONGJINSHULIZIHANLIANGNONGSUO10BEI,NONGSUOHOUDEZHONGJINSHUJUYOUHUISHOULIYONGDEJIAZHI。

  6.2.6 SHIPINGONGYEFEISHUICHULI

  1998NIANZHANGWEIDENG[39]LIYONGN-PXINGFUHENALVMODUIDOUFUFEISHUIJINXINGCHULI。SHIYANJIEGUOBIAOMING,N-PXINGFUHESHUANGJINALVMODUIYIJIAYANHEERJIAYANYOUZHEMINGXIANDEFENLIZUOYONG,XIANZHUJIANGDIFEISHUIZHONGDECODHANLIANG,DADAOHUANBAOYAOQIU。2001NIANYUANQIPENGDENG[40]YOUCAIYONGCHAOLV―NALVSHIZUHEGONGYIJINXINGLEDADOURUQINGFEISHUIDECHULISHIYAN,JINGGUOCHAOLVCHULIHOUDERUQINGFEIYE,ZAIJINGNALVNONGSUO10BEIHOU,NONGSUOYEZHONGZONGTANGYUEYOU77%BEIJIELIU,QIZHONGGONGNENGXINGDIJUTANGSHUISUTANGHEMIANZITANGDEJIELIULVGAODA90%YISHANG。NONGSUOYEZHONGZONGTANGZHILIANGFENSHU8.2%,ZAIJINGHUOXINGTANTUOSEHELIZIJIAOHUANTUOYANJIZHENKONGNONGSUO,JIKEDEDAOTOUMINGZHUANGDADOUDIJUTANGTANGJIANG(GANJIZHILIANGFENSHUWEI76%)。GAIFADEYOUDIANZAIYUJIJIEJUELEFEISHUIDEPAIFANGWENTI,YOUTONGGUOHUISHOULIYONGTIGAOLEJINGJIXIAOYI。

  LIYONGSHUANGJIMONALV,KEYITONGSHIJIANGYIJIAYIN、YANGLIZIYUGAOJIAYIN、YANGLIZIFENLIKAI,BASHUANGJIMOYONGYUHAI(LU)SHUITUOYINGZHONG,Ca2+、Mg2+HESO42-KETONGSHIBEIQUCHU,JIKESHIXIANHAISHUITUOYING,YOUKETIGAOXIUSUCHANPINZHILIANG。ZAIDIXIALUSHUIHANLIANGFENGFUDEDIQU,ZHIJIANSHIWANGWANGYONGLUSHUIRONGJIEYAN,JIANSHAOYANDEXIAOHAO,DANLUSHUIZHONGMEILIZIWANGWANGDUIDIANJIEGUOCHENGCHANSHENGYIXIEBULIYINGXIANG,YIBANYONGHUAXUECHENDIANFAJIAYIQUCHU,TOUZIZENGJIA,GONGXUZHANG,ERQIEWURANHUANJING,KEYINGYONGSHUANGJIMOYUXIANJIANGMEILIZICHUQU。

  CIWAI,SHUANGJIMOZAILVSENENGYUANZHONGYOUZHEZHONGYAODEYINGYONG,SHUANGJIMOXUDIANCHI[41-42]DEKAIFAJUYOUJIAOWEIGUANGFANDEQIANJINGHEMINGXIANDEJINGJIXIAOYI。SHUANGJIMOYOUJIDIANHECHENG[43]SHIYIZHONGLVSEHUANBAOJISHU,JUYOUGUANGFANDEYINGYONGQIANJING。

  6.2.7 SHUANGJIMOZHANWANG

  SHUANGJIMOZUOWEIYIZHONGXINXINGMO,YIQIDUTEDEYOUDIAN,WEIJIEJUEHUANJINGGONGCHENGZHONGCUNZAIYIJIUDEYIXIEJISHUNANTITIGONGLEXUDUOXINDESILUHEJIEJUEBANFA。JIXUKAIFAGAOXINGNENGDESHUANGJIMO,GAIJINMODEZHIBEIGONGYI,JIANGDIMODESHENGCHANCHENGBEN,SHENRUKAIZHANJILIYANJIU,YANJIUMOZHONGLIZIQIANYIJISHUICHUANDIDEJILI,YANJIUGAOXINGNENGSHUANGJIMOCAILIAOJIZHIBEI,TUOKUANYINGYONGLINGYU,JUYOUSHENYUANDEYIYI。LIRU,BASHUANGJIMODIANSHENXIGUOCHENGYUGUANGCUIHUAGUOCHENGOUHE,ZAISHUANGJIMOZHONGJIANCENGZHONGYINJINNAMIGUANGCUIHUAJI,BUJINKEZENGDASHUIDESHENTOUXINGHELIZIDEQIANYILV,ERQIEGUANGCUIHUAZUOYONGNENGSHISHUANGJIMODEXINGNENGDEDAOJIDADEGAISHAN,SHIQIDADAOJIENENGDEXIAOGUO。YINCI,SHUANGJIMOJISHUBUJINNENGWEIHUANJINGGONGCHENGZHONGCUNZAIDEJISHUNANTITIGONGJIEJUEBANFA,ZAIQITALINGYUYEYOUZHEGUANGKUODEYINGYONGQIANJING。

  结语

  1)CONGCHULIGONGYISHANGLAIJIANG,MOGONGYIYINGYONGYUSHUICHULIJISHUZHONG,JUYOUJIDADEYOUSHI。YUCHUANTONGDESHUICHULIXIANGBI,MOGONGYIDEYINGYONG,NENGGENGYOUXIAODIQUCHUSHUIZHONGDEWUJIWU、YOUJIWUHEGEZHONGWEISHENGWU,JIDADITIGAOCHUSHUISHUIZHI;YINGYONGDAOWUSHUICHULIZHONG,YENENGJIANSHAOWUNICHANLIANG。

  2)YOUYUMODEXINGZHIHEMOGONGYIDEYINGYONGCUNZAIZHEYIDINGDEJUXIANXING,YINCITONGCHANGJIANGMOGONGYIHECHUANTONGGONGYIJIEHE,HUOZHEBALIANGZHONGYISHANGDEMOGONGYIJIEHEQILAI,LAIJIEJUEMOZAISHUICHULIZHONGCUNZAIDEWENTI。

  3)MOWURANDEWENTIGENGSHIZUAIMOJISHUTUIGUANGYINGYONGDEGUANJIANZHIYI。DANSUIZHEMOJISHUDEBUDUANFAZHAN,MOWURANDEWENTIJIANGHUIJINYIBUDEDAOJIEJUE,CONGERMODESHIYONGKEKAOXINGYEHUIBUDUANDITIGAO。

  4)CONGJINGJIDEJIAODULAIKAN,YOUYUMODEGONGYILIUCHENGJIAOWEIFUZA,ZAIJIASHANGMOZUJIANDEJIAGEJIAOGAO,SUOYIYUCHUANTONGGONGYIXIANGBI,MOGONGYIDEZAOJIAHUIBICHUANTONGGONGYIGAO,YINCI,MUQIANMOJISHUJIAOSHAOYONGZAIDAGUIMODESHUICHULIDANGZHONG,YIBANSHIHEYUXIAOSHUILIANGDEJINGSHUICHANG。


SANGUOZHIZHANLVEBANXIANGGUANDEWENZHANG:

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